About the only thing as much fun as a long-distance trip on an electric motorcycle is a friend stopping by who is ON a long-distance trip on an electric motorcycle!

On Tuesday, I was fresh back from the MREA Energy Fair when Ben “Benswing” Rich stopped by my house.

He’s out on tour this summer on his electric motorcycle. (You can read all about it at As he’s doing so, he’s stopping at some very cool locations and events…. and also my garage.

I was at home when Ben pulled up. Fortunately, I caught the reflection of his cycle in a mirror, through a window, zipping past. Electric motorcycles are so quiet that there’s definitely no VROOM-VROOM to announce themselves to the entire neighborhood – which is especially nice coming and going early in the morning and late at night.

Ben was all geared up in black leather and fancy biker pants. First things First. We plugged in the motorcycle. Rule number one of long distance riding is to ALWAYS plug in the motorcycle BEFORE doing anything else! One time, I was at a campground and a guy came over to me to start asking questions about my Vectrix. We chatted for a little. 45 minutes later, I realized that I hadn’t even got the chance to plug in my cycle before we started talking! Lesson learned. Plug in first.

Ben has 3 chargers on his bike – two 2500 watt chargers mounted in saddle-bag position, and a 10,000 watt “Super-Charger”, (and the bike’s stock charger!) The limiting factor in how fast the bike can charge is really based on how much electricity he has access to!

I always thought of my garage as being pretty good as far as power goes. I have a 50 Amp NEMA 14-50 plug (popular at RV Parks!) along with a 6.6kW J1772 charging station. Ben plugged in to both at the same time.

We got to talking about the joys and challenges of long-distance riding, and even shot a quick video overview of Ben’s charging setup.

Unfortunately, I found out that although I have quite a few circuits in my garage, I’m limited by the main fuse! My panel has a 50A/240V or 100A/120 main breaker. Doing the math, that’s 12,000 watts. I checked the T.E.D. whole house energy monitor, and it was reading over 13,000 watts for my whole property!


It didn’t take all that long until my garage main breaker popped. Ben turned down the power on his charger a bit, then we flipped the breaker back on, and the bike continued charging.That got me interested in how much HEAT was being made by all that current. I had my thermal camera handy and shot a few stills of the breaker box, Ben’s bike, and his charger. We even shot a little thermal video.


I believe the total charge time for the bike was only 38 minutes. Which was FAR TOO little time to spend with a neat guy like Ben. Oh well, guess I’ll just have to follow his adventures on his web page, just like everyone else! He did mention that while on the road, most of his updates would be through his Facebook page:

If YOU are out on an electric vehicle adventure, and happen to be going through south-eastern Wisconsin, stop on by! I’ll leave the charging station on for you. (Seriously, I’m on Plugshare…)

Until next time, stay charged up!

-Ben Nelson


MREA Energy Fair 2016

by Ben N on June 27, 2016


I had a blast at the MREA Energy Fair!

In case you aren’t familiar with it. The Energy Fair is an event for renewable energy and sustainable living hosted by the Midwest Renewable Energy Association, in Custer, Wisconsin, on the weekend closest to the summer solstice. It’s one of the largest events of its kind in the country and focuses on EDUCATION with hundreds of presentations and workshops, plenty of exhibitors, and no shortage of fun, music, or beer.

For me, the highlight of the event is the people. There are AMAZING people there! You can literally bump into any single person at the event, start to chat, end end up having one of the greatest conversations in your life… and then repeat with the next person you talk to.

There’s always old regulars and new friends.

IMG_9532This year, I was especially excited to have a couple of electric motorcycle friends there. Ryland Erdman is a long-time Energy Fair volunteer and motorcycle rider. He was there showing off his home-built drive-shaft electric motorcycle.

Our friend, Kraig Schultz, who I rode part of LOOP THE LAKE with, came on out from Michigan and brought his smaller electric motorcycle to show off. He’s a long-time cyclist with the heart of a hippie and the mind of an engineer. Kraig also brought a neat little portable display showing how electric vehicles work.

Together, we hosted an extended 3-hour workshop on electric motorcycle design.

IMG_9566There were plenty of electric and alternatively-fueled vehicles at the Fair. I don’t think I’ve ever seen so many Mitsubishi iMiEVs together before. There were also Teslas, a Ford Focus Electric, C-max Energi and Fusion Energi, several 2nd Generation Chevy Volts, and enough Nissan Leafs that they were just parked general parking instead of being displayed. Of course, the creme-de-la-creme, was the Illuminati Motor Works “Seven” X-Prize Car.



IMG_9542Kevin was kind enough to give us a ride in unique car. Nothing is quite as much fun as going 0 to 60 in six seconds on a side-road while facing backwards! Kraig and I were in the back seats. Although I’ve had fun getting to test drive a Tesla, they feel almost pedestrian compared to this unique vehicle, which gets double the fuel economy of anything else on the road.

I also got to speak with David Katz, who is doing some work repurposing Nissan Leaf batteries in home power backups, and Bob Rohr, a solar installer running the Caleffi booth. I actually worked with Bob a number of years back, producing the instruction DVD teaching people how to install Caleffi’s solar-hot water system kit.

I briefly visited a couple of booths, looking specifically for more details on a racking system and inverters for my upcoming solar garage project. At the Iron Ridge booth, I got to play with some racking and learn about wind-force and snow loads. At a solar vendor next door, I was able to get two exhibitors debating back and forth on the merits of string inverters vs. micro inverters.

I also bid in the silent auction for quite a bit of solar hot water equipment. The lot included pumps, valves, anti-freeze, pressure tanks, and a 3.5′ x 6′ solar hot water panel. I didn’t get the winning bid on that lot, but I DID win a Caleffi solar hot water system controller, with nobody bidding against me!

IMG_9578The end of the fair is always bitter-sweet. It’s time to say good-bye to friends and pack up, but it’s also a time to start thinking about next year. So, what will next year bring? I don’t know yet, but I have toyed with the idea of building an electric motorcycle while AT the fair. Since I have a mini-bike frame around that I picked up at a rummage sale, perhaps that would make a nice and simple display to convert to electric at next years fair.

Well, no matter what happens, I’ll see YOU at next year’s MREA Energy Fair!

Stay Charged up!


This is a guest post brought to you by EV enthusiast and fellow electric motorcycle builder Ned Funnell. He’s an engineer-turned-missionary who appreciates the simplicity and efficiency of electric drive, and doesn’t mind cleaner air for his 9-month-old. 

Demystifying the Slow Growth of the Fast Charging Network- or, Why EV drivers should gladly pay for public charging

Requests and pleas for wider distribution of DC Fast Charging, also known as Level 3 charging, are common. So too, are complaints about the high costs of charging at many of these facilities. If the consumer demand is there, why aren’t businesses rushing to sell electricity to begging EV drivers? Let’s take a closer look into what this issue looks like from the inside.

The key concept in operating an EV fast charging station is Demand. It’s something that the average person doesn’t know about, since power companies typically bill residences simply for total usage. Demand is how much power a site such as an office, factory, school, or DC fast charger uses at its very peak moment of use. For small consumers like homes and small businesses, Demand is both comparatively small, and more or less predictable- the power company doesn’t try to measure and charge for it. At home, it doesn’t matter to us when we use power, only how much it adds up to in the end.

To understand the other end of the spectrum, let’s look at a worst-case scenario demand user: electric steel mills. These mills use (demand) thousands of kilowatts, but do it in spurts of several hours, then shut off. That’s a large fraction of an entire power plant, being turned on and off. Traditional power plants cannot instant start making much more or much less electricity to respond to these changes; they have to ramp up and down slowly. The steel mill suddenly demanding several megawatts and then suddenly shutting it off would cause mayhem at the power company, if not for the close communication between Demand-heavy sites and the power company. Managing and meeting Demand is the power company’s primary concern.

Utilities have to build big, expensive power plants to cover the maximum, worst-case demand for power - not just an average. Image credit: Shell. Utilities have to build big, expensive power plants to cover the maximum, worst-case demand for power – not just an average.Image credit: Shell.


Demand is also a matter of dollars- the steel mill (or any business larger than a Walgreens) pays not only for the amount of electricity they use, but also a Demand Charge. This is based on how much they use at once. The power company is essentially charging for the privilege of having large amounts of electricity available when needed, because it costs the utility more to provide. To balance things out, the business pays less per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which is the measure of how much electricity was used.

How does the demand charge work? Basically, sites using more than just a normal home get a special meter which measures and records how much is being used, and when. Say that a company needed to turn on every machine and appliance in the building for fifteen minutes- the power company would have to provide enough power for that huge load, even though it only happened for fifteen minutes, so that spike of maximum use, as short as 15 minutes, dictates the Demand Charge.

I live in Kentucky. Electricity is cheap here- really cheap. I pay 7.7 cents/kWh, all day and all night, summer and winter. Kentucky is about the best-case scenario, fiscally, for energy. It’s also one of the most coal-intensive states- no coincidence there. So, what if we wanted to build an L3 charger site here in Kentucky, which is cheap energy heaven? Let’s take a look.

A standard CHAdeMO charger puts out 50 kW (kilowatts). It takes in slightly more, though, because it’s not perfectly efficient -think of it as overhead. Let’s assume it wastes about a tenth, meaning it uses 55kW. I’ll also want to have a couple L2 chargers on site too, in case the L3 is occupied, and so users not in a rush can pay me to charge too. Let’s say those are 30A EVSEs, or about 6.2 kW[i]. So what will electric costs look like? Well, let’s figure out the Demand. If all three of those charging opportunities were used at once, then the Demand would total up to about 67 kW. Since we’re using so much electricity all at once, that means we have to subscribe to a rate with the power company that includes a Demand Charge. How much? My local utility, KU, charges $15.30 per kW in the summer, or $13.20 in the winter[ii]. That’s going to hurt!

The good news is that the price per kWh is lower- only 3.56 cents! More bad news, though- being on a commercial rate also means the service charge is higher. This is the fee a site pays just to be hooked up to the grid before a single kW or kWh is accounted for. It is usually something like $10 or $15 for homes, but for commercial service, KU charges $90.

So let’s open our charging station! Day 1: Three EVs all come in on opening day and start to charge for the cameras at the opening ceremony. The Demand is 67kW for a brief time while the EV using the CHAdeMo charges- and I’ll owe the charge for that whether I use it once, or every day. That EV pays $5 for the charging session, and the other EVs pay $0.49/kWh for their juice. Let’s take a look at the books for the month after day 1.

 Opening day
Fast charging  $                     5.00
Level 2 charging  $                  17.64
Power usage  $                     0.19
Connection fee  $                     3.00
Demand charge  $            1,025.00
Profit or Loss $          -1,005.55


WOW! We lost a thousand bucks during the opening ceremony! I’m not paying a lot for the power, but I’m paying a lot for the privilege of having it when I need it. I’ll have to make up for these costs before the bills come. Let’s say during the month, I get nice brisk business: five fast charging sessions per day at $5 each, and ten level 2 charging sessions per day at $0.49/kWh, all taking in an average of 12kWh.

 Per month
Fast charging  $                750.00
Level 2 charging  $            1,764.00
Power usage  $                192.24
Connection fee  $                  90.00
Demand charge  $            1,025.00
Profit or Loss  $            1,206.76


Excellent! $1206 of profit per month! Why isn’t everyone doing this? Well, ignoring the wildly optimistic idea of 10 drivers consistently choosing to fill their cars with my outrageous $0.49c/kWh electricity, we need to figure in the over head. We need to pay for the maintenance- hooligans cutting off L2 cords for the copper, keeping the parking spaces plowed of snow, and, of course, technician visits to keep the L3 unit working. After all, fast charging stations have a terrible reputation for reliability. Those breakages takes a chunk out of revenue, too, in lost business. Let’s make a nice round (and also optimistic[iii]) number out of it and say that we’ll only have to pay an average of $500 per month for those things[iv]. That leaves us with $706- still a nice amount to take home, right?

Wait-I haven’t paid for any of the start-up costs yet! L3 chargers are VERY expensive. $50,000 is a common number for L3s, not to mention those two L2s. Commercial units with installation are about $5000 or more, to be realistic. So we paid $60000 to get up and running. Let’s say the land I built on was free from the local government, and the asphalt company for the parking donated their services, and the bank gave us an interest-free loan. The power company will actually often bring the power to a new site for free- they figure on making it back eventually. So I’ve got $60k to pay off with $706 per month. That comes to a mere… 85 months! Seven years pass before the first dollar of profit would come from this incredibly optimistic scenario.

Does this look cheap to install? Image credit: WA State DOT. Does this look cheap to install? Image credit: WA State DOT.


The heart of the matter becomes clear in comparison to home charging. Demand charges and maintenance are two things you don’t have to pay for at home, and that’s the golden halo that makes owning an EV as an individual so great. That cheap 7.7 ¢/kWh is available for the taking with zero additional cost, after an EV owner pays $400 – $1400 for an EVSE installation. Making that same electricity available outside your house, however- and through sophisticated quick-charge equipment – opens a Pandora’s box of costs that turn the proposition of opening a profitable quick charging station into a business nightmare.

Think of it as eating at home instead of eating in a restaurant. One can make their own meals at home, frugally and with equipment they already have access to, for $1-5 a meal. When I leave behind the asset of my kitchen, though, I expect to pay $10-25 for someone else to feed me from their kitchen. There are staff to pay, plates to clean, menus to print- a whole array of costs that go into a meal on the road. No one expects a restaurant to serve them a meal for the cost that that it could be had for at home.

So, please, EV owners, don’t call charging site owners usurious or greedy when they charge you several times what you pay for electricity at home. In all reality, they are probably not even covering their own actual costs. Dealerships don’t host L3s to make a buck on the power, they do it to make bucks selling cars. Fast charging operation is a good business case for just about nobody- at least as long as EV owners complain loudly about paying more when one the road than what they pay at home. EV owners have to brin g money into that business in some other way- and it takes a lot of sandwiches and coffee to make up for the gap shown above.

If you want to fill up for two dollars, charge at home. Don’t ask a company to bring electricity to you while away from home for essentially nothing. If you’re driving an EV to save money- understand the limitations. If you’re driving an EV to starve a terrorist- thank you. If you’re driving an EV to save the planet, cough it up- and don’t scorn those businesses trying to make EV infrastructure work in spite of the nigh-impossible business case. We all need public charging infrastructure to grow, so let’s not scoff at paying for what we use.

[i] This is because commercial electricity used for EVSEs is usually supplied at 208 volts, not the 240 volts supplied to homes, reducing the available power)
[iv]  Pulling Back the Veil on EV Charging Station Costs (Rocky Mountain Institute)


You Charge WHAT!?$

by Ben N on June 7, 2016


I was pretty excited to see that there will be some new DC Fast Chargers coming to my area!

In fact, just yesterday, three new chargers were commissioned; one in the Madison area, and two in the Milwaukee area. I was working in Milwaukee today, and thought I would stop in to check out one of the new DC Fast chargers.

I happen to drive a Mitsubishi iMiEV – the electric car with the smallest battery pack (and shortest range) of any commercially-built Battery Electric Vehicle in the United States. The official EPA range per charge is 62 miles. I live about 35 miles from downtown Milwaukee. In good weather, and given enough time to take the backroads, I can just barely eek enough range out of the car to make it there and back without charging.

Today, I had to make part of the trip on the freeway (which drains the battery faster.) So, I thought I could see the charger, test that it’s working correctly, and get a little juice for my drive home.

IMG_9391I headed over to THE OUTPOST on Capitol Drive. (
The first thing that I noticed is that they had done a GREAT job on painting the parking space! Bright green painted lines and lettering clearly make it known that this space is not just for any car to park in; it’s an ELECTRIC CAR CHARGING SPACE!

The space was the very last one in a line of angle parking. Unfortunately, angle parking always seems to make things farther away! The CHAdeMO quick-charge connector on the Mitsubishi is on the back left, which would be the FARTHEST point of the car from the charger. I pulled in, all the way, just to see if the cable would come anywhere close, and of course, it didn’t.

I backed the car out, spun around, and backed in. The cable would now reach, although the CHAdeMO cable was on the left side of the charger, and the car’s charging port was now near the right side of the charger. I checked again, and even though the cable had to be brought back around oddly, at least it reached.

Next, I went to the touch screen on the DC Charger. The screen was bright and easy to read. It featured images of the two connectors, and invited me to pick which one I wanted to use. I selected the CHAdeMO cable and advanced to the next screen. That asked me to tap my EVGO card.

I don’t have one of those.

I looked for the text that would say “If you don’t have an EVGO card, please swipe your credit card” or at least “If you don’t have a card, please press this button for other options. SOMEthing. ANYTHING. But there were no alternatives. (*Please see PS. I was later able to find out that the credit card readers are not functional yet – a software issue – and therefore these chargers are not “Officially” open!)

IMG_9395Eventually, the machine timed out and went back to the default “Choose Your Hose” screen. This time, I dipped my credit card into the card reader. Nothing. I spun my card around and tried again. Still nothing. I used a different card. Same result.

I finally consigned myself to calling the Customer Service phone number. I was able to get in contact with a real live human being. He was pretty helpful on the phone and was able to take my credit card information. I confirmed that the car was off, plugged in the CHAdeMO cable, and Customer Service turned the charger on for me.

Instantly, I could hear the large cooling fans inside the machine roar to life, and the car started charging at 100 amps. I headed inside The Outpost to use the bathroom and get a cup of coffee.

While sipping my hot beverage at the coffee corner of the store, I had a chance to ponder the economics of DC Fast Charging, and I think I got the short end of the stick.

Before starting the charge, Customer Service informed me that it would cost me $10.51. I reluctantly agreed. I really could use a little juice, and more than anything, I just wanted to test out this charger to make sure that it would be available and useful to me in the future. I also wanted to post notes to PlugShare to let other EV drivers know about the new charger, so they could make use of it too.

Although I really only needed a little electricity, my only option was “per charge”. It was a FLAT RATE of $10.51, regardless of how large my battery was, or its state of charge. For the most part, CHAdeMO stations usually charge to 80%. Some stations will charge a little higher than that or you can stop and restart the charge to continue charging, although at a lower rate of current.

In this case, I had just a little less than half a charge. The iMiEV has a 16 Kwh battery pack. 80% of that is 12.8 Kwh. And since I had about half a charge, that meant that I would get 4.8 Kwh of energy from my ten dollar charge. Heck, let’s round up to 5 Kwh to be generous and make the math easier. 5 Kwh is good for about 20 miles of range. Perfect. That’s more than enough to get me home with no worries. I could even take pretty much whichever route and whatever speed I’d like and still be fine.

When we look at the economics, 5 Kwh of energy for $10 means I paid $2 per Kilowatt-Hour. But how much does one kilowatt-hour or energy normally cost? To find out, I looked at my home electric bill, added in all the taxes, my “renewable-sourced electricity” fee, and my meter fee to find a total amount, and then divided by the number of kilowatt-hours I used. My TRUE cost per kilowatt-hour at home comes to………  13.2 cents.

That’s right, in this particular case, charging in public cost me over FIFTEEN TIMES as much as it would have cost to charge at home.

Think of it another way. At the gas station closest to my house, regular unleaded costs $2.45 per gallon. Imagine if some other station was charging 15 times that – $36.75 PER GALLON! Unheard of!

Also, my only option was a flat rate per charge. Can you think of a gas station that would charge a flat rate per tank of gas? What about a large truck versus a small car? What if your gas tank was already mostly empty or mostly full? How would that be a fair way to pay for gas!?

EVGO_pricingTo be fair to NRG EVgo, they do have other less expensive options. For example, I could sign up for a subscription. In that case, I would have a monthly fee of $14.95, a one year minimum, and an early termination fee of $29. But in exchange for that, a 30 minute charge would cost only $3.00. A gas car driver could buy a little more than a gallon of gas with the same three bucks, and the average new car gets 25 mpg, so $3 would get a gas driver about 30 miles of travel. As long as my battery was less than half full, I’d get MORE than 30 miles of range, so I would start to feel like a winner EXCEPT, the gas driver never had to pay any sort of monthly fee to a gas station!
The only way that the monthly fee makes sense is by doing a LOT of public quick charging, and at that point, there would be very little FINANCIAL savings over just driving a gas car!

But lets look at it another way. What would a Tesla Model S, with it’s large battery pack get for the same $10.51? According to a station operator, a Model S would typically get 22 Kwh in a 30 minute CHAdeMO session. That would work out to about 48 cents per Kwh. That’s roughly the same cost per mile as a 25 mpg gas car paying the current low $2.50 per gallon in my area. So, not as cheap as charging at home, but no less expensive than gas either. More likely than not, a Tesla driver would simply have the range to NOT need to use this particular fast charger, or the driver would be traveling and stop at one of the three different “free” Tesla Superchargers in south-eastern Wisconsin. Larger battery packs eliminate the need for quick-charging, with the exception of only very long trips. It makes me wonder about the need for DC Quick Charging once the GM Bolt and Tesla Model 3 arrive.

On the other hand, some of the car manufacturers are throwing in “Free Charging” with new vehicles. BMW, Ford, and Nissan all programs for free charging in some cities when you lease or purchase a new car. Certainly THOSE drivers could make great use of these charging stations. Oh wait. I just checked the fine print of those programs. The Ford program is only for Level 2 charging and neither the BMW or Nissan programs include Milwaukee.

Oh well, those Tesla Superchargers are starting to look pretty good right now!

So, enough on my rant against the ridiculous cost of using this charger. What’s it REALLY mean for you and me?

1) Having charging stations in public is a good thing. The more the merrier. It’s important to have charging stations AVAILABLE for EV drivers to use.
2) Will I use one like this on any regular basis? No. I’ll charge at home where it’s nice and cheap, thank you very much.
3) Will I EVER use a charger like this again? Probably. If I need to. It would be nice to have for a special trip or emergency.

I guess what’s really bothering me right now is how INCONSTANT pricing and availability of charging is. I can stop at any gas station, and there will be multiple gas pumps – often as many as a dozen – all in working order. The price of fuel from one gas station to another is often identical. I can swipe my credit card at any gas pump, and it just plain works. I don’t have to be a member of Mobil or pay a monthly fee to Citco just to use their pumps!

So why doesn’t Public EV Charging have this figured out yet!
The two things that I can think of are:
1) We are in the Wild West of EV Charging. This is new. Folks are all trying to figure out the best way to do this.
2) EV charging is just DIFFERENT than filling a tank with gas. It’s a completely different type of fuel, different level of energy, and how we go about it is just plain different. It’s like trying to compare Apples to Orangutans.

Well, until we do figure it all out, I’ll keep charging at home, saving about $100 a month by not buying gas, and do so on renewable energy.

Stop by any time. I’ll loan you a cup of electrons.

Stay Charged up!

*PS: I was able to get in contact with one of the people working on these chargers and was told that the credit card readers won’t be working for a couple of weeks still. It appears that there’s some sort of software upgrade that still needs to be done, and therefore these stations aren’t “Officially” open yet! They will work with the subscription cards right now though!



Leaf Cells in a Scooter

by Ben N on June 2, 2016


Lately, a lot of people have been asking about using Nissan Leaf Cells in various projects, including smaller electric scooters.

I happened to have my Vectrix battery pack out of the cycle, as I was planning on doing some work with it anyways. It LOOKED like a pack of 8 of these cell modules (for a 60V nominal pack) SHOULD fit in the battery compartment of a Flux Mopeds EM1 scooter. BUT, there was no way of telling for sure.

So, I did what anyone would – tore apart the scooter to try cramming some batteries in there!

The first step was to remove the plastic panels on the scooter. That gave me some room to see what was inside and what space I had to work with. In the bottom is sort of a sheet-metal tray.

IMG_9307I built a pack from 8 of my Leaf cell modules and traced it out on cardboard. (You may already be familiar with C.A.D. – Cardboard Aided Design.) A simple cardboard template is much easier to lift and position than actual batteries. Just using this simple template, I could see that I would have to trim a bit of the metal from the tray.

I used both an angle-grinder with a cut-off disc and a tin snips to remove some material on either side of the narrow portion of the tray. Once that was done, I could place the Leaf cells inside. I made a basic battery carrier by tying some heavy cord to the battery brackets.

IMG_9324After the battery was in place, I could see that some plastic would still have to be trimmed from the inside seat compartment. I set that piece over the battery, marked where it looked like I needed to trim, and cut away the excess plastic with a jig-saw. After that, the the trim went right back over the battery and was bolted in place.

IMG_9332At that point, the battery was in pretty solid. I installed the bus bars and an Anderson disconnect at either end of the pack. Next was plugging it in, flipping on the breaker, and testing the scooter! With it up on the double-kick-stand and the rear wheel off the ground, I flipped the scooter to ON and twisted the throttle. The rear tire spun to life!

I couldn’t resist going for a spin around the block, even if the scooter didn’t have a body, tail-light, or plates on it…

For proper permanent installation, it looks like an angle bracket could easily be installed on the front of the battery pack and reuse the machine screws that hold the front of the seat mount to the frame. A similar mounting point coming off the threaded rod would take care of the rear of the pack.

This is about a 3,000WH battery, and theoretically could give the scooter a 60 mile range! I’m not sure anyone would actually want to ride that far when these smaller scooters have limited speed and are typically just used in town…

I’ll give you a better update when I get the full “How-To” video put together, but that won’t be for a few days. In the mean time, enjoy these photos and stay charged up!